Cytokine-based treatments of asthma and allergic diseases

Author: V. Dimov, M.D., Allergist/Immunologist and Assistant Professor at University of Chicago
Reviewer: S. Randhawa, M.D., Allergist/Immunologist and Assistant Professor at LSU (Shreveport) Department of Allergy and Immunology

Cytokine-based treatments of asthma and allergic diseases.

Cytokine Signaling. This video is from: Janeway's Immunobiology, 7th Edition Murphy, Travers, & Walport. Source: Garland Science. IL-4 activates STAT6, which then engages the transcription factor GATA3, leading to secretion of IL-4. GATA3 is pivotal for Th2 maturation. T-bet (also called TBX21 or T-box 21) is pivotal for Th1 maturation. T-bet is a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity ( STAT4 activates the transcription factor T-bet, which induces the secretion of IFN-gamma. T-bet promotes Th1 development by direct induction of IFN-gamma and IL-12Rbeta2 chain gene transcription. IFN-gamma acts an amplifier by binding to its receptor on Th1 cells and activating STAT1, which then engages T-bet. T-bet inhibits IL-4, IL-5, and IL-17 secretion. T-bet may also inhibit Th2 differentiation by preventing GATA3 from interacting with its target DNA. T-helper cells subsets Th1 Th2 Th17 T-reg Th1 IL12 STAT4 T-bet STAT1 IL-2 IL-10 Mnemonic: only 1, 2, 4; double, 2 x 2 = 4 Th2 IL-4 STAT6 GATA3 Mnemonic: double, 3 x 2 = 6 Th17 IL-1, IL-6 STAT3 IL-17 Mnemonic: 1 + 6 = 7 T-reg IL-2, TGF-beta STAT5 Foxp3 IL-35 Mnemonic: "5/3 Bank", TGF/Five References Human Th subsets, figure. UpToDate, 2009. ScienceDirect: source 1, source 2. Medscape, 2008.
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