Mind Maps: Asthma

Author: V. Dimov, M.D., Allergist/Immunologist and Assistant Professor at University of Chicago
Reviewer: S. Randhawa, M.D., Allergist/Immunologist and Assistant Professor at NSU

Asthma is the most common chronic respiratory disease, affecting up to 10% of adults and 30% of children (JACI, 2011).

Pathogenesis of Inflammation in Asthma

Inflammation in asthma (mind map).

Th1 and Th2 subsets (mind map)

Overview of adhesion molecules, 3 groups remembered by the mnemonic SIS:
Superfamily Ig

Mast cells (mind map).

A diagram of eosinophil mediators

Diagnosis of Asthma

Allergic (atopic) march (click here to enlarge the image).

Asthma diagnosis


Differential Diagnosis of Asthma in Children

Severe asthma - differential diagnosis and management (click to enlarge the image). Related: Common Asthma-related Comorbidities. Medscape, 2011, (figure) http://j.mp/omHVc6

Children who are referred to specialist care with asthma that does not respond to treatment (problematic severe asthma) are a heterogeneous group.

Differential Diagnosis of Asthma in Adults

Differential diagnosis of cough, a simple mnemonic is GREAT BAD CAT TOM. Click here to enlarge the image: (GERD (reflux), Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR), Rhinitis (both allergic and non-allergic) with post-nasal drip (upper airway cough syndrome), Embolism, e.g. PE in adults, Asthma, TB (tuberculosis), Bronchitis, pneumonia, pertussis, Aspiration, e.g foreign body in children, Drugs, e.g. ACE inhibitor, CF in children, Cardiogenic, e.g. mitral stenosis in adults, Achalasia in adults, Thyroid enlargement, e.g. goiter, "Thoughts" (psychogenic), Other causes, Malignancy, e.g. lung cancer in adults).

Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) (click to enlarge the image):

Wheezing in Children - Phenotypes (click to enlarge the image).

Childhood asthma phenotypes (click to enlarge the image).

Modified Asthma Predictive Index (mAPI) (click to enlarge the image).

Treatment of asthma

Asthma classification and treatment for each stage.

Immunomodulators for allergic disorders, basic mind map.

Immunomodulators for allergic disorders, complete mind map.

Cytokine targets for immunomodulators for allergic disorders.

More minds maps here: Treatment of Pediatric Asthma


Immunomodulators for allergic respiratory disorders. Casale TB, Stokes JR. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 Feb;121(2):288-96; quiz 297-8.

Asthma Inhalers (click to enlarge the image).

Inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)

Relative binding affinity for glucocorticoid receptor (GR): mometasone > fluticasone > budesonide > triamcinolone.

Relative anti-inflammatory potency: mometasone = fluticasone > budesonide = beclomethasone > triamcinolone.

Asthma - Treatment Options (click to enlarge the image).

Related reading

Diagnostic algorithm for the approach to children with chronic cough. ER, 2011.
A simplified, stepwise algorithm for the treatment of asthma. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology 2011 7(Suppl 1):S2.

Published: 01/24/2008
Updated: 02/23/2012

1 comment:

Richard Friedel said...

The vicious circle of asthma drugs. As an asthmatic I got trapped in a vicious circle; bit like a person being trapped in the use of sleeping pills. However an addiction to sleeping pills is relatively easily overcome by force of will. This may apply for asthma medication addiction as well, except that for medical opinion will have it that the disease is incurable. This not true. vigorous nose inhales pressing the lips together releive asthma by a lips-lung reflex. Google for (npf perioral) or try pressing a lip with a finger.