Co-stimulators and their ligands on antigen presenting cells and T cells

Author: V. Dimov, M.D., Allergist/Immunologist and Assistant Professor at University of Chicago
Reviewer: S. Randhawa, M.D., Allergist/Immunologist and Assistant Professor at LSU (Shreveport) Department of Allergy and Immunology

There is no T cell response without costimulation. If T cells recognize the antigen but are not co-stimulated, they go in a state of anergy or nonresponsiveness.

Two co-stimulators produce negative response instead of positive response (activation). The negative co-stimulators are CTLA-4 and PD-1 on T cells. They are connected to ITIMs.

Pairs of co-stimulators and their ligands:

Left - antigen presenting cells (APC) -- right - T cells

CD 80 (B7-1 in mouse) -- CD 28
CD 86 (B7-2 in mouse) -- CTLA-4 (negative response)
ICOS-L -- ICOS (class switch)
OX40L -- OX40
CD40 -- CD40L (class switch)
PD-L1/PD-L2 -- PD-1 (negative response, PD - Programmed Death)

Abbreviations: ITIM, immunoreceptor tyrosine inhibitory motifs; ICOS, inducible co-stimulator; PD-1, programmed death.

CD152 is cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4). CTLA-4 binds to CD80 and CD86 receptors with a higher affinity than CD28, and inhibits T cell activation.

Abatacept (Orencia) is CTLA4-human IgG1 fusion protein against B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86). It is used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

Published: 05/12/2010
Updated: 09/22/2010

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